WHO: Hypertensive patient, Heart Failure patient, Renal Failure patient, Liver cirrhosis patient, someone taking glucocorticoids, or someone on estrogen therapy.
WHAT: Thiazide Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive
It works by increasing the excretion of sodium and water by stopping sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule of the nephron. It also encourages the excretion of chloride, potassium, hydrogen, magnesium, phosphate, calcium, and bicarbonate. May also cause arterioles to dilate.
HOW: Adult dose: 12.5-100mg/day, given over 1-2 doses. Can be given up to 200mg/day. Given by mouth.
Safety: Watch for electrolyte imbalances. Monitor BP, I&O, assess edema, watch for skin rash and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Allergy Warning: Assess for allergy to sulfonamides.
WHEN: It is generally given daily, but may be given every other day. Give when blood pressure is too high or there is edema present. Also, give in the morning to prevent disrupting sleep cycle.
WHERE: Can be used in the acute care setting or at home.
WHY: Treatment for edema and hypertension.